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顔写真
College of International Relations  /
American University Ritsumeikan University Joint Degree Program

 (Female)
 SUMIYO   NISHIZAKI  Assistant Professor

■Concurrent affiliation
Graduate School of International Relations
■Graduate school/University/other
01/2017  London School of Economics and Political Science  Economic History Department  Doctoral course  Completed
05/2010  Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies  Japan Studies Program  (International economics and Asia/Japan studies)  Master's course  Completed
12/2003  University of San Francisco  School of Business  Business Administration  Master's course  Completed
03/1989  Tsuda College  College of Liberal Arts  Department of International Relations  Graduated
■Academic degrees
Doctor of Philosophy (01/2017 London School of Economics and Political Science)   Master of Arts in International Economics and Asian Studies (05/2010 Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies)   Master of Business Administration (12/2003 University of San Francisco)   Bachelor of Arts (03/1989 Tsuda College)  
■Career history
04/01/2017-  Assistant professor, Ritsumeikan University, College of International Relations
10/01/2013-05/31/2016  London School of Economics, Economic History Department, Teaching Assistant (equivalent to a guest lecturer)
01/02/2011-08/31/2013  Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies, The Reischauer Center, Research Associate
04/01/1989-02/28/1999  Takashimaya Department Store
■Academic society memberships
Economic History Society  
Business History Society of Japan  
Socio-Economic History Society  
Political Economy & Economic History Association  
■Subject of research
Economic experiences of Japanese civilian repatriates, 1945-56
Knowledge dissemination via an in-house training: A case of Japanese employees in the South Manchuria Railway Company
Economic reconstruction of Hiroshima city, 1945-1965: An analysis of statistical data
■Research summary
After empire comes home: economic experiences of Japanese civilian repatriates, 1945-1956

 The economic impact of large influxes of population is a complex topic. This research contributes to this field by examining one of the most significant, but least researched, examples of postwar migration – the repatriation of more than six million (including three million civilians and demobilized soldiers each) to Japan after the Second World War. One pervasive image of Japanese civilian repatriates is that of the immigrant farmer of Manchuria (Manshū kaitakumin) who settled as a part of Japan’s Manchurian policies and had difficult repatriation experiences under the hostility of local people. However, many returned from other regions as well, including Korea and Sakhalin, and repatriates consisted of not only farmers but also colonial government officials, employees of public and private corporations, and small business owners, amongst others. This research uses an analysis of statistical data, which is a unique approach to study Japanese repatriation. A core source material is a national survey into civilian repatriates’ postwar lives (Zaigai jijitsu chōsahyō) conducted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1956, and focuses on civilian repatriates’ occupational changes during the time of economic transition.

The most unexpected finding in my research was that roughly half of civilian repatriates had worked in the public or semi-public sectors, or major Japanese companies’ overseas branches. Repatriate farmers, who have become a symbol of the Japanese repatriate, were a minority, and made up only 5-10 % of overall Japanese civilian repatriates. The data presented in the research shows that, in contrast to prevailing notions, repatriates’ postwar settlement was facilitated by a) skilled employment, b) employment in the public or semi-public sectors, and c) family farming or employment in small businesses in the tertiary sector. As a result, despite the scale of the repatriation, the settlement was broadly successful. It can be argued that this type of transition helped to bring political and economic stability, which became a foundation of Japan’s postwar growth.

This finding has another important implication which is related to war memory creation. In postwar Japan, the majority of repatriates who had been associated with wartime public corporations or the wartime public sector appear not to have openly spoken of their experiences, fearing being labeled as the empire's agents. On the contrary, the tragic experiences of repatriate farmers have caught the general public’s attention. The gap between the silence of the former group, and the often-heard stories of victims might have led to the recreation of images of ‘the repatriates’ which significantly emphasizes the experiences of the latter group. Consequently, although details of the repatriation problems have been largely forgotten, the imagery of the repatriates as victims of the war have been recreated and perpetuated among the Japanese general public. This settlement pattern offers a reasonable explanation as to why a large number of repatriates were able to be absorbed into postwar Japan and why the memories of the Japanese repatriation were largely forgotten, aside from selected images of the repatriates as victims of the war.

Note: A part of the research title is taken from Dr. Lori Watt’s book, When Empire Comes Home. I am grateful to Dr. Watt for allowing to use a phrase from her book title.
■Research keywords
Repatriation, postwar reconstruction, the South Manchuria Railway Company, labor market, labor mobility, transition economy, human capital development, economic history, business history, history of technology, technology transfer 
■Research activities   (Even top three results are displayed. In View details, all results for public presentation are displayed.)

Books
'A Case Study: The United Arab Emirates and Japan: Diversifying Bilateral Relationships and Challenges in the Context of Japan's New Foreign Policy Focus and US-Japan relations' in East by Mid-East  Brannon Wheeler & Anchi Hoh  Equinox Publishing  255-278  10/2013  978-1-8455-3933-7
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Papers
Dissertation Summary: After empire comes home: Economic experiences of Japanese civilian repatriates, 1945-56 (forthcoming)  Sumiyo Nishizaki  The Australian Economic History Review  07/2020
Economic experiences of Japanese civilian repatriates
in Hiroshima prefecture, 1945-1956  Sumiyo Nishizaki  Economic History Working Papers, Economic History Department, London School of Economics  299, http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/101172/  07/2019
Review of Dear China: emigrant letters and remittances, 1820-1980  Sumiyo Nishizaki  The Economic History Review  72/ 2, 782-783  04/2019  10.1111/ehr.12860
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Research presentations
From Manchuria to postwar Japan: Knowledge dissemination through in-house training at the South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR)  The Association for Asian Studies 2020 Annual Conference (cancelled due to the coronavirus pandemic)  03/20/2020
Economic experiences of Japanese civilian repatriates: An analysis of the 1956 government's survey into repatriates' postwar lives  The second workshop on 'The reconstruction of postwar Okinawa and skilled repatriates'  02/02/2020
From Manchuria to postwar Japan: Economic experiences of South Manchuria Railway repatriates  Rikkyo University Economic History and Business History Workshop  01/10/2020
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Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI)
Link to Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research -KAKENHI-

Academic awards
The Economic History Society of Australia and New Zealand  The Asia-Pacific Prize in Economic History (Currently being shortlisted as a finalist)  07/2020
Comparative Histories of Asia Seminar, Institute of Historical Research  Doctoral Competition, First prize  02/2015
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■Teaching experience   (Even top three results are displayed. In View details, all results for public presentation are displayed.)

Courses taught
2019  IR-GS101 Introductory SeminarⅠ  Seminar
2019  IR-EDS301 Professional Workshop  Seminar
2019  IR-GS102 Introductory SeminarⅡ  Seminar
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■Message from researcher
 私は、1944年の日本の国家予算の8割以上が軍事費に使われていたことを知り、総力戦型の経済から戦後経済への移行過程に強い興味を持つようになりました。移行過程を探るケース・スタディの一環として、300万人以上の日本人民間人引揚者に注目し、戦争中から戦後への職業移動を統計的に分析しています。数字をシンプルに分析してみると、「引揚者=満州開拓民」という一般的に語られているストーリーとは違い、外地では公官吏、国策企業の社員、日本企業からの派遣社員として働いていた人たちが多かったことなどがわかります。イメージで語られがちな引揚史、また日本近現代史の実際の形を、経済史の視点から今後も明らかにしていきたいと思います。
■URL
 London School of Economics Theses Online
 Academia.edu
 Linkedin
 Google Scholar
■E-mail
■Research keywords(on a multiple-choice system)
Economic history